What is a Lottery?
A lottery is a scheme for the distribution of prizes by lot or chance. It can be a gambling game in which tickets bearing numbers are drawn for prizes or it can be used as a means of raising funds for public projects such as building roads or providing education. In the latter case it is sometimes referred to as a public lottery. A lottery is often seen as an alternative to higher taxes because it allows the public to give money in a voluntary manner.
Some governments outlaw lotteries while others endorse them and regulate the conduct of a state or national lottery. The term is also applied to any contest that involves a prize awarded by chance, such as a beauty pageant or picking the winners of an election. Some people believe that life is a lottery, and that everything from finding true love to getting hit by lightning is a matter of luck.
The prizes of a lottery are usually cash or goods. The amount of the prize is often determined before tickets are sold, although in some states and countries it is a percentage of the total receipts. The number of prizes and their value may be predetermined, or the promoter may allow ticket purchasers to select their preferred prizes. In either case, the prizes should be equal to or less than the cost of tickets.
In the past, many public lotteries were held to raise funds for a specific charitable purpose. The Continental Congress voted to hold a lottery in 1776 to raise money to support the American Revolution, and public lotteries were commonly used to fund such projects as building colleges, bridges, and ships. Privately organized lotteries were also common.
Buying a lottery ticket costs more than the expected value of winning, so decision models based on expected value maximization would not recommend purchasing one. However, the purchase of a lottery ticket enables some purchasers to experience a thrill and indulge in a fantasy of becoming wealthy. Other decision models based on utility functions that are defined on things other than the probability of winning can account for lottery purchase.
The time value of money can be an important consideration in deciding whether to accept an annuity or lump sum payment for a lottery prize. Winnings are often subject to income tax, which further reduces the effective prize. Nonetheless, most lottery participants expect to receive the advertised jackpot in a lump sum payment.